Gallium (Ga)

General Properties

Symbol Ga
Atomic Number 31
Atomic Weight 69.723
Group
13 (boron family)
IIIB (IUPAC), IIIA (CAS)
Solid, Diamagnetic, Conductor, Metal, Stable, Natural, Poor Metal
Period 4
Block p

Physical Properties

Density 5.9 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 11.8 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.41 angstroms
Covalent Radius 126 pm
Crust Abundance 0.0019%
Crystal Structure Orthorhombic
Color Silver

Energy

Electronegativity 1.8 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 28.9 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 579 kJ/mol
2. Ionization Energy 1979.3 kJ/mol
3. Ionization Energy 2963 kJ/mol
4. Ionization Energy 6180 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.371 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 40.6 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States 3
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 18 3
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
4s
↿⇂
4p
↿ 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Gallium (Ga)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Gallium (Ga)
Description
Soft, blue-white metal.
Uses
Used in semiconductor production. It us used in making LEDs (light-emitting diodes) and GaAs laser diodes.
Sources
Found throughout the crust in minerals like bauxite, germanite and coal.
Pronounciation (English)
GAL-i-em

Translations

Afrikaans Gallium
Aragonese Galio
العربية جاليوم
Armãneashte Galiumu
asturianu Galiu
azərbaycan dili Qallium
български Галий
বাংলা গ্যালিয়াম
brezhoneg Galliom
bosanski Galij[um]
Byelorussian Галій
Cebuano Galio
čeština Gallium
Chuvash Галли
Cymraeg Gal·li
dansk Gallium
Deutsch Gallium
Ελληνικά Γαλλιο
English Gallium
esperanto Galio
español Galio
eesti Gallium
euskara Galioa
فارسی گالیم
suomi Gallium
føroyskt Gallium
français Gallium
furlan Gali
West-Frysk Gallium
Gaeilge Gailliam
Gàidhlig Gailliam
galego Galio
ગુજરાતી ગૅલિયમનો
Gaelg Gallium
Hakka Chinese Kâ (鎵)
עברית גליום
हिन्दी गैलियम
hrvatski Gallij
magyar Gallium
հայերեն .ալիում
Indonesia Galium
íslenska Gallín
italiano Gallio
日本語 ガリウム
ქართული გალიუმი
کٲشُر Gôl
қазақ тілі Галлий
한국어 갈륨
Kurdish Galyûm
Komi Галлий
kernewek Galyum
кыргызча Галлий
Latin Gallium
Lëtzebuergesch Gallium
Lombard Gàli
lingála Galu
lietuvių Galis
latviešu Gallijs
Mari Галлий
Maori Gallium
македонски Галиум
മലയാളം ഗാലിയം
монгол Галли
Мокшан Гали
Bahasa Melayu Gallium
Malti Gallju[m]
Nahuatl Galio
Nederlands Gallium
norsk Gallium
Occitan Galli
ирон Галлий
polski Gal
português Gálio
Runasimi Galyu
română Galiu
русский Галлий
slovenčina Gálium
slovenščina Galij
Samoan Galimi
Samogitian Galis
shqip Galium, ²Galliumi
српски Галијум
Southern Sotho Galliamo
svenska Gallium
Kiswahili Gali
தமிழ் கல்லியம்
Tajik Галлий
ไทย แกลเลียม
Türkçe Galyum
ئۇيغۇرچە گاللىي
українська Галій
o‘zbek Galliy
Tiếng Việt Gali
Võro Gallium
中文

History

Discovered In
1875
Discovered By
Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Discovered At
France
Word Origin
From the Latin word "Gallia" meaning "France" and perhaps also from the Latin word "gallus"